The previous article closed with a brief mention of the Flood as the Master Key to Earth’s Riddles. These riddles or puzzling questions about earth’s past (and present) were:
In this article I shall go into more detail each of the above items. The illustration below was drawn by me several years ago for presentations on the Flood. It draws attention to the fact that scientists attempt to answer the above questions using a number of keys because they do not connect all of them together. However, using the Flood Master Key we can answer all these as related to one earth event.
Distribution of Continents, Uneven Topography, Unusable Land
If you examine a topographical map of the earth (see under Creation Mysteries, Article 2), you will recognize the land masses (continents, islands) are separated by oceans, and the land masses are very uneven with mountain chains, deserts and ice covered regions. Much of the earth’s land surface is not suitable for agriculture and for living.
The Creationist view is that when God created the Good Earth (Genesis 1), it was a single land mass and had ideal topography and climatic conditions. All the land mass enjoyed a mild climate. There were no weather extremes. The earth had luxuriant vegetation with forests covering a large part of the earth. As mankind multiplied over a 2,000 year period, they spread farther and farther apart, clearing the forests. Yet, there was abundant land for the wild animals including the dinosaurs and mammoths (considered prehistoric by evolutionists).
In the previous article I explained how the supercontinent was split and drifted to form the present continents. This event occurred during the Flood. The evolutionists date it at 200 million years ago. This dating was based on the dating of earth’s layers that matched on both sides of the Atlantic. Evolutionists use imbedded fossils to match the layers, and the fossils that matched belonged to the middle Mesozoic era. The fallacy of this dating method will be discussed later. The finding of fossils immediately should give the clue that it was the Flood that caused the death of animal and plant life, and the matching fossils mean the continental split took place at the time of the Flood.
The uneven topography of the present earth resulted from the collision of crustal plates after the Split and the Drift. It did not take millions of years for the continents to move to their present locations. The magma of molten rock below the plates was hot and fluid, so the plates could move fast initially; the movement slowed down as the magma cooled down. At present the Americas are drifting from Africa and Europe at the rate of an inch per year. This should be considered the nearly flat portion of an exponential decay curve which re[resents the rate of movement with time.
The formation of deserts is easy to understand. There are no mountain ranges beyond them to stop the rain clouds. Immediately after the Flood there were no deserts; all land was wet. It took hundreds of years to form the deserts. Evidence for vegetation and streams may be found under the sands of Arabia and the Sahara We should not be surprised to see evidence of past human settlements in these regions.
The cold regions such as Alaska, Siberia, Greenland and the Antarctic continent are the result of the movement of crustal plates bearing these land masses. Drilling work has shown that Antarctica had forests one time. Under the ice in Alaska and Siberia are found the remains of woolly mammoths, five million of them. Some of the carcass unearthed showed no decay, and subtropical plants were found in their bellies.
Mid-Ocean Ridges and Continental Drift
The ocean floor is uneven with deep trenches and volcanic peaks. What is more, the ocean floor appears to be cracked for some 40,000 miles. The most conspicuous mid-ocean ridge is in the Atlantic. You can look at any topographical map of the ocean floor and learn more about it. See the map in the first article. The mid-Atlantic ridge was discovered during the oceanic expedition of 1957. The ocean ridges confirmed the suspicion of earlier earth scientists such as Alfred Wegener who in 1901 had proposed Continental Drift. The idea of a single continent goes back as far as the time of the philosopher Francis Bacon in 1620. Another interesting observation on the separation of the continents resulting from the Flood was made by P. Placet in 1668: "The corruption of the great and little world where it is shown that before the deluge, America was not separated from other parts of the world". Antonio Snider’s 1858 book had a map with the Atlantic closed, and he too claimed the deluge had caused the separation of continents.
Some Creationists have misinterpreted Gen. 10:25 which says what happened during Peleg’s time: ‘for in his days was the earth divided’. Peleg was a descendent of Noah who lived a few hundred years after the Flood. The misunderstanding here is about the division of the earth. What happened during his time was the people of the earth dispersed following the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11) If the earth’s crust had broken up during his time, it would have been a calamity as big as the Flood. Yet there is no indication of such an event, or the destruction of life.
In April 1974 I wrote an article in the Bible Science Newsletter about Continental Drift. At that time Creationists in America had not included this event in their Flood model. Even today, most Creationists in America refuse to accept it. Just as with the Six Day Creation, these Creationists have misread the overwhelming evidences available to them.
Stratified Rocks, Petrified Forests, Canyons, Rivers
Many places in the world show stratified rock layers exposed for hundreds of feet. The most celebrated example is the Grand Canyon in Arizona. The Colorado river flows through the Canyon at a depth of a mile. Geologists and paleontologists have made this a showcase of evolution. Based on their uniformitarian view of the formation of these layers, they assume the layers were formed over millions of years by gradual deposition. What is more, various living forms that died were fossilized and preserved in these layers. We shall see later that such a view is not supported by evidence. The Grand Canyon is considered the best preserved specimen of the Geological Column of time scale, yet it misses many millions of years, and the rock layers do not always show the expected sequence. The Creationist view is that the Grand canyon and other canyons were formed during the separation of the earth; they were not carved out by rivers; on the contrary, the rivers just found their way through the canyon.
Petrified rock forests are seen in Western USA. In fact not too far from the Grand Canyon is a petrified forest. Tree trunks have been turned to rock but still showing trunk patterns. In other places lava rocks are found in many layers, implying volcanic activity. Again, the volcanic activity during the Flood would account for these.
The earth’s river systems are the result of the new topography from the Flood event. Many straits and land bridges are also the result of the changed topography. Immediately after the Flood, after the waters had drained off (mostly back to the ocean when the land had been raised again (as in the Six day Creation), many animals could travel long distances and reach remote parts of the earth that are now separated by oceanic water. Following the Flood, glaciers melted and raised the sea level and submerged many land bridges. Why do we not see kangaroos except in Australia? Because these animals had crossed the land bridges but could not go back. Perhaps kangaroos in other parts of the world did not survive the post-Flood living conditions. Hunting was a major activity of humans, and some animal species may have been wiped out by such activity.
Fossils Tell A Different Story
Fossils are considered the Showcase of Evolution. Those prehistoric creatures such as the sabre-toothed tigers, dinosaurs and mammoths do not live in our present world, yet evidence for such creatures in the past is preserved in the rocks.
Evolutionists have created a fable out of the fossil record. They want us to believe the following:
- 1. The creatures and plant life represented in the fossil record are several million to several hundred million years old.
2. They all died at different time periods spanning millions of years, and the earth covered their remains and produced the fossils. The oldest fossil should be expected in the lowest stratum and the youngest, in the topmost stratum.
3. The progression of life from the simple to the complex is preserved in the fossil record on a time scale spanning 600 million years. This is the time ascribed to evolution of these creatures and plant forms.
Nothing is further from the truth. The following are the facts:
- 1. The fossils are found in sedimentary rock layers deposited during the Flood some 5,000 years ago.
2. The animals and plant life all died in a short period at the initial stages of the Flood. They were trapped in the mud and fossilized as the Flood sediments accumulated and piled up. There is no clear-cut pattern of different layers showing different life forms. Many different species are found in the same layer. Many parts of the earth show oldest fossils (by evolutionary dating) on the topmost layer, and the youngest at the bottom layer.
3. There is no well-defined progression of life from the simple to the complex in a neat column of rock strata.
4.There are no transitional forms of life in the fossil record
Why are the evolutionary claims false?
- First: The evolutionists are not honest about fossil findings. This will become apparent in a later paragraph (see Fossil anomalies).
Second: The evolutionary dating of fossils is incorrect. They do not directly date the fossils; instead, they date the layers and assign the date of the layer to the fossil. But even their layer dating is full of uncertainties (see below).
Third: Fossils are not formed by gradual death and gradual deposition of soil. Fourth: There should be a lot more fossils if evolution did occur. It is estimated that some two million transitional forms should be in the fossil record to prove evolution. None are found.
The formation of fossils require burial in soft mud followed by compression and the absence of oxygen and bacteria. Otherwise the dead matter would decay completely. The fact that even the tender plant leaves are preserved means that they had not decayed, yet were completely covered by mud and compacted. Slowly the soil particle replaced the plant imprint. In the case of fish and animals, the soil particles replaced the soft parts and the bony structure remained. This is why it is possible to carve out the original shape of shells, ammonites and fish..
The apparent progression of life forms from the simple to the complex in the fossil record is somewhat expected from Flood geology: the heavier and immobile forms such as the shells would settle down first. The more mobile forms would be buried further up. The smartest of all, man, would die last and would be seldom fossilized or his fossi l would be worn out.
The number of fossil species in the fossil record is estimated at 130,000 while the number of living species is estimated at 1,105,100. Professor Melvin Cook, author of Prehistory and Earth Models (published by Max Parrish, London, 1966) has computed that if evolution did occur in the past, the number of fossil species should far exceed the number of living species by a factor of 10. Furthermore, he estimated that we should expect one new species in the present world every 200 years. Evolutionists tell us that evolution is so slow that it cannot be observed in time spans of hundreds of years which is why we see no new species!
The following examples are just a tiny fraction of the anomalies in the fossil record
- 1. Modern horse hoof in cretaceous coal: discovered in Utah by a mining engineer.
2. Frozen mammoths in Siberia and Alaska: an estimated five million mammoths are entombed in ice in these places as if overcome by a sudden catastrophe. Some of them have subtropical plants in their mouth and belly. These animals were first drowned in water, later covered by snow and ice as the land masses moved to the arctic regions.
3. Dinosaur mass graves in Alberta, Colorado and Utah: hundreds of thousands of pounds of smashed bones are found in these locations in mass graves. A catastrophic death is indicated. Mass graves of other animals are also found worldwide.
4. Dinosaur Footprints and Human Footprints: dinosaur foot prints were found in the same river bed with giant human footprints in Paluxy river bed in Texas (the author has visited this location). The picture below is a photo taken by Burdick who acquired this; the original cut-outs are now kept in the Creati0on Evidence Museum in Glen Rose, Texas. The evolutionists had challended this finding, but more investigations have led to its authenticity being established.
Dinosaur Footprint and Giant Human Footprint on the same river bed, Paluxy, Texas (from: Genesis Flood by Whitcomb & Morris, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing House, 1961)
5. Trilobites and shoe prints: These are found in plenty in Antelope Springs, Utah. A piece of shale in the area, when opened, revealed a perfect cast of human footprint. Trilobites are primitive creatures which had become extinct 500 million years ago according to evolution.
6. Human footprints everywhere: Besides the examples given already, the following may be added: footprints in carboniferous coal reported in Scientific American, January 1940 issue – this magazine stopped publishing such items anymore, and is sold to evolution; in triassic sand stone; in precambrian (granite) rocks. In other words, humans lived during the entire time span of evolution.
The Formation of Coal and Petroleum
Coal beds are scattered throughout the world from a few feet to several hundred feet down. In several places alternate layers of coal and rock strata are found. The evolutionists would have us believe that coal was formed over millions of years from trees buried some 300 million years ago. This again is false. Would you believe that you can produce the oldest looking anthracite coal in the lab in a few hours from wood chips? Chemical & Engineering News, May 29, 1972 issue reported such a successful attempt by Dr. Hill of U.S. Bureau of Mines & Minerals, Utah. All that was needed was heating (200-260°C) under high confining pressure.
There were massive forests in the pre-Flood world which were uprooted by the Flood, carried off in the Flood waters and mud and deposited. Another wave of fresh trees would be deposited layer and so on. It takes 16 ft of wood to be compacted to one foot of coal. Coal could be formed in the years following the Flood. The total coal reserves on the earth match a biomass of trees on earth.
What about petroleum? Petroleum shows an organic origin. There is evidence marine life that died in massive quantities may have been partly converted to petroleum. But most of the petroleum under the rocks was formed during the formation of the earth itself , since petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons and crude carbonaceous matter. Again, lab experiments demonstrated that petroleum could be made in minutes from raw manure, garbage and so on by heat and pressure. Such conditions did exist during the fiery event of the Flood. Natural gas is also a product.
Dating Ancient Life
I have referred to this matter several times, but here at last I am going to cover it in more detail. The magic time chart of ancient life is the Geological Column devised by the evolutionists. It is shown below with ages and typical life forms of each age.
The Geological column is a paper column. Nowhere on earth is such a column representing sedimentary rock layers. If it did, it would be a 100 miles high! The Grand canyon is the tallest part of the column but is only a mile deep. What the evolutionists have done is to date rock layers containing fossils by radiometric dating such as Potassium-argon (Uranium dating is not sensitive enough). Radiometric volcanic and plutonic rock fragments in the sedimentary layers are dated. This itself is questionable. During the Flood event such fragments came out of the earth’s interior into the Flood deposits. The date they give has no relationship to the date of the layer which was deposited during the Flood. Even if it did relate, the fossils in the layers were deposited only a few thousand years ago. The earth’s primitive rocks are five billion or more years old. The sedimentary rocks resulted from the fragmentation of the primary rocks. Their formation is of course much later. Evolutionists date a fossil based on the date of the rock intrusion in the layer where the fossil was found. The next thing they do is that whenever the same fossil is found anywhere else, they don’t date the layer; they simply state the age they determined the first time. The truth is different types of fossils are found in the same layer, and many times the order is reversed. Evolutionists do not reveal these disparities. The circular reasoning goes like this: the fossil is dated by the layer; then the layer is dated by the fossil!
Elsewhere I presented direct radiocarbon evidence on fossils which showed they are all relatively recent.
The Ice Ages
Evolutionists place the Ice Ages in the Pleistocene epoch a few hundred thousand years ago. In fact they postulate four Ice Ages. The formation of the Great Lakes is believed to be due to the movement of glaciers from the north which covered a good part of North America for a time.
The Flood explanation is much simpler. During the breakup of the earth’s crust, the polar ice caps also broke up, and came dashing down. Later on these melted and formed the lakes.
The so-called ‘Fossil Men’ you have seen in National Geographic and other magazines are pure myth. The most sensationalized recent findings are those of the Leakys in East Africa where they claimed to have found humanoid bones dating back to 3 million years.
The truth is, this is an area where the massive death during the Flood deposited human bones and animal bones together, What the Leakys have picked up are just ape bones and skull fragments! Occasionally someone finds a near-modern looking skull fragment in the same type of layer. The radiometric dating used such as potassium-argon date the radiometric rock intrusions in the layer, not the bone fragments.
Most of the skulls you see in museums are figments of imagination. Evolutionists fashioned theses skulls from a single bone fragment or a piece of skull and gave them whatever shape they wanted. You probably have heard of the Piltdown hoax, and the story of the Nebraska man. The former was a painted skull cast with teeth from a dog and an elephant. The ‘Nebraska man’ was shown as evidence for human evolution during the Scopes Monkey Trial in 1925, and was later shown to be fabricated from the tooth of a pig. Such is the story of Evolution.
Human Population, Spread of Civilization
The Flood model suggests that all present history started with the family of Noah some 5,000 years ago. The human population probably did not rise fast for centuries due to diseases and inhospitable living conditions on earth. It is only in the 20th century we have seen an exponential growth of population. It is estimated that at the time of the Flood nearly a billion people had inhabited the earth. At present there are six billion people on earth.
After the Flood the family of Noah settled down near the Ark landing and their descendants moved further west into central and western Turkey and then to Mesopotamia, It was while in Mesopotamia mankind under the leadership of probably Nimrod, rebelled against God for which they were punished by God as described in Genesis 11. Their efforts to build a tower reaching to the heavens were thwarted, and their tongue was confused. They were forced to disperse to different parts of the earth. God’s intention was to separate mankind to prevent evil from spreading fast. So man reached the distant continents and islands, but each group was cut off from the rest in such places. Once they moved away from the center of civilization, they lost their arts and were forced to live as primitive people. This is the story of the aboriginal tribes.
An interesting observation from the Chinese language is that the pictogram for ‘tower’ is made up from the words ‘mankind’, ‘one’, and ‘mouth’ (speech). The word ‘rebellion’ is made up from ‘tongue’ and ‘right leg’ (walking away). See below the Chinese pictograms (from: The Discovery of Genesis by C.H. Kong and Ethel R. Nelson, Concordia Publishing House, 1979).
It may be pointed out that the Creation and Flood accounts are also remembered in the Chinese alphabet. For example, the word for ‘boat’ is made up of the words for ‘vessel’, ‘eight’ and ‘people’.
The Origin of Races
God changed the looks and skin color of the dispersed people to adapt to each region they settled down. Since in the early days these men had to resort to hunting, they needed protection from the wild beasts. The dark color of natives in tropical countries is to be considered a one-time change. This does not happen when a light colored man goes now and lives for years in a tropical country. Only by marriage these colors mix and change. So the origin of races is to be tied to the origin of languages, throughout the two phenomena were separated by years.
The average life span for human beings is only seventy years or less. In the pre-Flood world the life span was much higher by an order of magnitude. Adam, the first man, died at the age of 930; Noah, the Flood hero, died at 950 years. Methuselah was the longest lived man with a life span of 969 years. Only Enoch had a much shorter life span, of 365 years, but he did not die but was translated and taken to heaven.
After the Flood we see the life span going down sharply. Abraham died at the age of 175. Moses died at 120. The drastic decline in longevity had much to do with the Flood. After the Flood and the changes to the earth, mankind was faced with more inhospitable conditions. Before the Flood, though man had sinned, the conditions on earth were still very good. Some creationists have postulated that the collapse of the water vapor Canopy caused ultraviolet rays to reach the earth which affected longevity. I have shown that the Canopy theory cannot be supported. The secret of longevity was the superior body structure and the favorable environment.
In the Middle Ages the longevity of life was much lower than it is today. Thanks to medical advances and comforts of life, we are climbing up slowly in longevity, but there is no immediate hope of a much steeper climb, merely because our environment is only getting worse, not better.
New Testament References to the Flood
Jesus not only validated the Flood event but reminded his listeners that the conditions on earth at His Second Coming will be similar to the conditions on earth just before the Flood (Matt. 24:37-39). We have no right to disbelieve the biblical account of the Flood!
Peter also referred to the Flood in 1 Pet. 3:20 and mentioned the eight survivors including Noah and his family.
The Flood explanation of past life and events is not only biblical, but also scientifically valid. We should study carefully and believe in the Flood event because it is the Master Key to the past and the present. It is also a reminder of God’s awesome power and His zeal to keep the Earth pure and fruitful. The Earth is made for man to live in unity and harmony, but if we forget our Creator and spoil it, we shall not truly ‘inherit’ the earth.